In the last four years Divya Yog Mandir (Trust)- Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar initiated scientific research on Yoga with a special emphasis on Pranayam as taught by H.H. Swami Ramdevji.

yoga_research-imgThis research effort culminated in a book ‘Yoga In Synergy With Medical Science’ authored by Pujya Acharya Balkrishnakji. (Divya Prakashan, Divya Yog Mandir, Trust, Haridwar, India, 2007). The research is detailed in Chapters 5 and 6.

1. The first set of studies were conducted in a series of Residential Camps at Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar. The participants were patients with a wide range of illnesses, specially targeting (i) obesity, (ii) diabetes, and (iii) hypertension. Medical professionals from national and state government medical institutions were involved in these trials which may be described as ‘prospective non-controlled trials’. To offset the disadvantage of having no control group the trials included large numbers of participants, of both sexes, and varying ages ranging between 1304 and 1868.

yoga_research-img1Many of the variables (such as pulmonary function tests, blood pressure levels, serum lipid profile, electrocardiogram abnormalities) studied have been reported in earlier trials investigating the effects of Yoga. However an interesting feature of these trials is that results were presented in terms of number of persons who showed an improvement/ who worsened/ or who showed no change.

yoga_research-img2Given the large numbers of participants this is an interesting innovation in approaching pre-post intervention analysis. Most of the variables did show that patients shifted towards improvement following Yoga. The book also presents a brief discussion on the possible mechanisms underlying the improvement.

yoga_research-img32. Another trial was conducted on 128 out-patients department patients who presented with osteoporosis or osteopenia. Assessments were pre-post 40 days of Yoga. This was a prospective, non-controlled, longitudinal trial. Bone mineral density was found to improve after Yoga.

3. Yoga for sports participants – was the third study, carried out on team members of the football team who later played for the World Cup. The physical fitness and exercise performance were assessed with standard variables at the beginning and end of a7-day intensive Yoga training. The results suggested that the training was beneficial and improved various aspects of physical fitness and exercise performance.

yoga_research-img44. A separate set of studies were conducted in the United Kingdom (the U.K.) which looked at the effect of Yoga for the most prevalent problems there, such as obesity, hypertension, heart disease, among others. This prevalence was mainly true for specific sub-categories of the Indian immigrant population.

Here also, prospective, short-duration, intensive, non-controlled trials showed that Yoga practice was clinically useful.

5. A controlled trial was conducted on 119 participants in a 10-day Yoga Camp, with a follow-up after 3 months. This trial was conducted with Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore; Sanjay Gandhi Medical Institute, Lucknow, and Sahara India Medical Institute, Lucknow.

yoga_research-img5Participants were assigned to two groups by the experimenter: Yoga and non-Yoga, control. The variables studied included hormones (e.g., cortisol, endorphins, prolactin); body mass index, polygraph recordings of the heart rate, breath rate, stress indicators (such as skin resistance and cutaneous blood flow), as well as performance in tasks for attention, concentration, and muscle fatigue.

These data were amenable to statistical analysis and the results are presented in detail (pages 172-196). The short term (10 days) and 3 month followup showed various neuroendocrine, autonomic, and performance-related benefits of Yoga.

yoga_research-img66. A large scale survey was conducted on 84,663 people from across the sub-continent to assess their attitudes towards various aspects of lifestyle and Yoga. It was of great interest to note that the sample was variegated and representative, including almost comparable numbers of people of both genders. Different age groups, levels of education, occupations, and economic status, as well as their residence in urban or rural areas. This was important to note as this was not a systematic randomized selection; nonetheless it appeared adequately representative. A surprisingly large number of participants mentioned that they were regularly practicing Yoga (81.9%).

yoga_research-img7This large scale survey also examined the time of the day people were most likely to practice Yoga , the conditions which improved the most and other interesting facts (e.g., a shift in attitude with better respect for older people after practicing Yoga ) or a greater likelihood of stopping the consumption of fast food). Approximately 83 percent reported that they believed that Patanjali Yogpeeth had played a definite role in establishing Yoga as a science.

yoga_research-img8Finally, Chapter 8 has a vast number of detailed testimonials from people who have benefited from Yoga practice as taught by Swami Ramdevji, most often in the Yoga Camps. These cover widely differing conditions and include cancer, degenerative disorders, as well as the to-be-expected conditions such as obesity.

PRESENT RESEARCH (2007-2009)

ABOUT US

Vision

yoga_research-img9Patanjali Yoga and Ayurveda Anusandhan Sansthan is committed to scientifically evaluate the physiological and clinical effects of Yoga and Pranayam as taught by Swami Ramdevji and the Ayurvedic medicines formulated by Acharya Balakrishanji.

THE TEAM

Under the Chairmanship of Acharya Balkrishanji, a team of reputed Yoga Scientists has been formed to carry forward the work of Yoga research in Patanjali Yogpeeth.

Dr. Shirley Telles, M.B.B.S., M.Phil., Ph.D.(Neurophysiology), D.Sc. (Yoga), a world renowed name in the field of Yoga research has been working as Chief Research Consultant for Patanjali Yogpeeth.

INSTITUTIONAL ETHICS COMMITTEE:

The IEC has been formed according to the guidelines of the Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi and meets every 6 months or as required. All clinical trials are registered with the Clinical Trials Registry of India.

yoga_research-img10ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR YOGA AND PRANAYAM RESEARCH:

A National and an International Advisory committee have been established.

CURRENT RESEARCH

Research Areas

1. Physiological effects of Yoga (emphasizing the techniques of Swami Ramdev) we would use a 16 channel polygraph (to measure the BP non-invasively, the cardiac output, the heart rate variability, respiration, blood flow to the periphery, and electrodermal activity. We also record basal metabolic rate, and lung functions. Our biochemical assessments include routine investigations (e.g., the lipid profile) as well as other hormones such as leptin and ghrelin).

2. Skill, perception & cognition following yoga. Applications in education and specific occupations. For e.g.,the armed forces, in children who are slow learners.

3. Yoga as a therapy
• Single group trials
• RCTs

yoga_research-img114. Yoga and rehabilitation
• Medical (e.g., for persons following stroke.)
• Social: e.g., survivors of the 2008 Bihar floods

5. Yoga, ayurveda and related areas e.g., Use of Ayruveda in promoting dental health and preventing caries.

6. Basic physiology e.g., comparing body composition in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and in normals.

The Department has taken advantage of the fact that large numbers of healthy persons and patients attend the Yoga camps here. Hence we are developing databases of various physiological and attitude/behavior related-data to contribute to norms in the Indian population

Research Projects

COMPLETED PROJECTS

1. Field studies on the effects of pranayam camps (Yoga vijan shivir) were conducted in collaboration with local medical institutions viz., Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow and Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation [A Yoga University], Bangalore.

2. Effects of a ‘7 day residential Yoga camp were studied in persons with varied psychosomatic illnesses.

3. Effect of two pranayama techniques in experienced Yoga teachers were studied on attentional tasks in medical students, middle aged and older adults and in children.

4. Effect of Yoga on physical fitness, work performance and psychological stress in new army recruits [Collaborative Project with Bengal Engineering Group & Center, Roorkee and Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation [A Yoga University], Bangalore].

5. Effect of Yoga on physical fitness, mental health, scholastic performance, vision and oral hygiene in children at a residential school:

A randomized longitudinal study. A multi-disciplinary project between Dept. of Yoga Research, Dental Sciences and Opthalmology in collaboration with Divya Prema Seva Mission, Haridwar].

CENTRALIZED RESEARCH FACILITIES

1. Centralized Facility for Biochemistry, Haematology, Histopathology and Serology

2. Centralized Facility for Microbiology and Cytobiochemistry

3. Centralized Facility for Panchakarma

4. Centralized Facility for Dental Sciences

5. Centralized Facility for Opthalomology

6. Centralized Facility for Medical Imaging

7. Centralized Facility for Cardio-respiratory diagnostic services

8. Centralized Facility for Medical Library and Information

9. Centralized Facility for Medicinal Herbarium

ACADEMIC PROGRAMS

The Department conducts one day seminars and longer duration workshops. Between May 23 – June 5, 2009 the Dept is conducting a course on “Advanced Training in Yoga Research”, attended by scientists from other yoga institutions .

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS IN YOGA RESEARCH

Subramanya, P. and Telles, S. (2009). Midlatency auditory evoked potentials following two yoga-based relaxation techniques. EEG Clin Neuroscience [In Press].
Patra, S. and Telles, S. (2009). Positive impact of cyclic meditation on subsequent sleep. Medical Science Monitor [In Press].
Telles, S., Dash, M. and Naveen, K.V. (2009). Effect of yoga on musculoskeletal discomfort and motor functions in professional computer users. Work [In Press].
Joshi, M. and Telles, S. (2009). A non-naïve, non-randomized controlled trial of kapalabhati (high frequency yoga breathing) on the P300 in normal volunteers. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine [In Press].
Telles, S., Naveen, K.V. and Balkrishna, A. (2009). Use of ayurveda in promoting dental health and preventing dental caries. Indian Journal of Dental Research [In Press].
Telles, S. and Naveen, K.V. (2008). Voluntary breath regulation in Yoga: Its relevance and physiological effects.  Biofeedback, 36(2):70-73.
Joshi, M. and Telles, S. (2008). Immediate effects of right and left nostril breathing on verbal and spatial scores. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 52(2):197-200.
Raghuraj, P. and Telles, S. (2008). Immediate effect of specific nostril manipulating yoga breathing practices on autonomic and respiratory variables. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 33(2):65-75.
Chatterjee, S., Chowdhary, N., Pednekar, S., Cohen, A., Andrew, G., Araya, R., Simon, G., King, M., Kerkwood, B., Weiss, H., Verdeli, H., Clougherty, K., Telles, S. and Patel, V. (2008). Integrating evidence based treatments for common mental disorders in routine primary care: feasibility and acceptability of the MANAS intervention in Goa, India. World Psychiatry (In Press).
Rao, R.M., Telles, S., Nagendra, H.R., Nagarathna, R., Gopinath, K., Srinath, S. and Chandrashekara, C. (2008). Effects of yoga on natural killer cell counts in early breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment. Medical Science Monitor, 13(2): LE 3-4.
Telles, S., Raghuraj, P., Arankalle, D. and Naveen, K.V. (2008). Immediate effect of high-frequency yoga breathing on attention. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 62(1): 20-22.
Telles S, Puthige R, and Visweswaraiah N. (2007).An ayurvedic basis for using honey to treat herpes. Medical Science Monitor, 13(11):LE17-17.
Padmasri, G. and Telles, S. (2007). Frontalis EMG amplitude changes during yoga relaxation based on initial levels. Journal of Indian Psychology, 25(1-2): 16-23.
Telles, S., Srividya, N. and Naveen, K.V. (2007). A comparison of the bilateral elbow joint position sense in yoga and non-yoga practitioners. Journal of Indian Psychology, 25(1-2): 1-5.
Telles, S ., Naveen, K.V. and Das, M. (2007). Yoga reduces the symptoms of distress in the tsunami survivors in the Andman Islands. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 4: 503-509.
Telles, S., Raghuraj, P., Maharana, S. and Nagendra H.R. (2007). Immediate effect of three breathing techniques on performance in a letter cancellation task. Psychological reports. Psychological reports. 104,1289-1296.
Manjunath, N.K. and Telles, S. (2007). Effects of Yoga and an ayurveda preparation on gait, balance and mobility in older persons. Medical Science Monitor, 13(12): LE 19-20.
Sarang, S.P and Telles, S. (2007). Immediate effect of two yoga-based relaxation techniques on performance in a letter cancellation task. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 105, 379-385.
Manjunath, N.K. and Telles, S. (2007). Effect of two ancient Indian interventions on depression scores in an institutionalized older population. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 33 (2)17-23.
Manjunath, N.K. and Telles, S. (2006). Pulmonary functions following yoga in a community dwelling geriatric population in India. Journal of Indian Psychology, 24(1) 17-25.
Sarang, S.P and Telles, S. (2006). Cyclic meditation – a moving meditation – reduces energy expenditure more than supine rest. Journal of Indian Psychology, 24(2) 44-51.
Telles, S. and Naveen, K.V. (2006). Effect of yoga on somatic indicators of distress in professional computer users. Medical Science Monitor, 12(10): LE 21-22.
Sarang, S.P and Telles, S. (2006). Changes in P300 following two yoga relaxation techniques. International Journal of Neuroscience 16(12):1419-30.
Telles, S., Dash, M., Manjunath, N.K., Deginal, R. and Naveen, K.V. (2006). Effect of yoga on visual perception and visual strain. Journal of Modern Optics 54 🙁 7-9) 1379-1383.
Telles, S. and Naveen K.V. (2006). Comments to: Health realization/Innate health: Can a quiet mind and a positive feeling state be accessible over the lifespan without stress-relief techniques? Medical Science Monitor, 12(6): 13.
Telles, S., Naveen, K.V., Dash, M., Deginal, R. and Manjunath N.K. (2006). Effect of yoga on self-rated visual discomfort in computer users. Head and Face Medicine 50 (2): 187-190.
Sarang, S.P and Telles, S. (2006). Oxygen consumption and respiration during and after two yoga relaxation techniques. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 31(2):143-53.
Sarang, S.P and Telles, S. (2006). Changes in heart rate variability during and after two yoga based relaxation techniques. International Journal of Stress Management 13(4), 460-475.
Telles, S., Dash, M. and Naveen, K.V. (2006). Emotional impact following the tsunami in endogenous people and mainland settlers in the Andaman islands.  Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 60(2):70-1.
Telles, S., Raghuraj, P., Ghosh, A. and Nagendra, H.R. (2006). Effect of yoga on performance in a mirror tracing task. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 50 (2): 187-190.
Telles, S. (2005). Oriental approaches to masculine and feminine subtle energy principles. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 100: 292-294.
Manjunath, N.K. and Telles, S. (2005). Influence of yoga and ayurveda on self rated sleep in a geriatric population. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 121: 683-690.
Telles, S., Mahapatra, R.S. and Naveen, K.V. (2005). Heart rate variability spectrum during Vipassana mindfulness meditation. Journal of Indian Psychology, 23(2): 1-5.
Raghuraj, P. and Telles, S. (2004). Right nostril yoga breathing influences ipsilateral components of middle latency auditory evoked potentials. Neurological Sciences, 25(5): 274-280.
Telles, S., Joshi, M., Dash, M., Raghuraj, P., Naveen, K.V. and Nagendra, H.R. (2004). An evaluation of the ability to voluntarily reduce the heart rate after a month of yoga practice. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 39(2): 119-125.
Telles, S., Deginal, R. and Hutchappa, L. (2004). Awareness of computer use related health risks in software companies in Bangalore. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 58(5): 212-213.
Manjunath, N.K. and Telles, S. (2004). Spatial and verbal memory test scores following yoga and fine arts camps for school children. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 48(3): 353-356.
Telles, S. and Naveen, K.V. (2004). Changes in middle latency auditory evoked potentials during meditation. Psychological Reports, 94: 398-400.
Naveen, K.V. and Telles, S. (2004). Randomized trial of yoga as a complementary therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Respirology, 9: 96-101.
Naveen, K.V. and Telles, S. (2003). Yoga and psychosis: risks and therapeutic potential. Journal of Indian Psychology, 21(1): 34-37.
Raghuraj, P. and Telles, S. (2003). A randomized trial comparing the effects of yoga and physical activity programs on depth perception in school children. Journal of Indian Psychology, 21(2): 54-60.
Naveen, K.V. and Telles, S. (2003). Sensory perception during sleep and meditation: common features and differences. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 96: 810-811.
Raghuraj, P. and Telles, S. (2003). Effect of yoga based and forced uni-nostril breathing on the autonomic nervous system. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 96: 79-80.
Manjunath, N.K. and Telles, S. (2003). Effect of sirsasan (head stand) practice on autonomic and respiratory variables. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 47(1): 34-42.
Raghuraj, P. and Telles, S. (2002). Improvement in spatial and temporal measures of visual perception following yoga training. Journal of Indian Psychology, 20(1): 23-31.
Telles, S. and Vani, R. (2002). Reduction in voluntary pulse rate reduction achieved following yoga training. International Journal of Stress Management, 9(3): 236-239.
Vempati, R. P. and Telles, S. (2002). Yoga based guided relaxation reduces sympathetic activity in subjects based on baseline levels. Psychological Reports, 90: 487-494.
Manjunath, N. K. and Telles, S. (2001). Improved performance in the Tower of London Test following yoga.  Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 45(3): 351- 354.
Dash, M. and Telles, S. (2001). Improvement in hand grip strength in normal volunteers and rheumatoid arthritis patients following yoga training. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 45(3): 355- 360.
Vempati, R. P. and Telles, S. (2000). Baseline occupational stress levels and physiological responses to a two-day stress management program. Journal of Indian Psychology, 18 (1 & 2): 33-37.
Telles, S., Reddy, S.K. and Nagendra, H.R. (2000). Oxygen consumption and respiration following two yoga relaxation techniques. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 25(4): 221-227.
Telles, S., Vempati, R.P. and Reddy, S.K. (2000). Effect of yoga training on maze learning. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 44(2): 197-201.
Manjunath, N.K. and Telles, S. (1999). Factors influencing changes in tweezer dexterity scores following yoga training. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 43(2): 225-229.
Naveen, K.V., Nagendra, H.R., Garner, C. and Telles, S. (1999). Transcranial doppler sonography in different physiological conditions. Neurology India , 47:249.
Naveen, K.V. and Telles, S. (1999). Sudomotor sympathetic hypofunction in Down’s syndrome. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 43(4): 463-466.
Dash, M. and Telles, S. (1999). Motor speed based on a finger tapping task following yoga. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 43(3): 458-462.
Vempati, R.P. and Telles, S. (1999). Yoga based relaxation versus supine rest: a study of oxygen consumption, breath rate and volume & autonomic measures. Journal of Indian Psychology, 17(2): 46-52.
Telles, S. and Srinivas, R.B. (1999).  Autonomic and respiratory measures in children with impaired vision following yoga and physical activity programs. International Journal of Rehabilitation and Health, 4(2): 117-122.
Manjunath, N.K. and Telles, S. (1999). Improvement in visual perceptual sensitivity in children following yoga training. Journal of Indian Psychology, 17 (2): 41-45.
Raghuraj, P., Ramakrishnan, A.G., Nagendra, H.R. and Telles, S. (1998). Effect of two selected yoga-breathing techniques on heart rate variability. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 42(4): 467-472.
Manjunath, N.K., Nirmala, K.S., Srinivasa, R., Nagendra, H.R. and Telles, S. (1998). Shorter latencies of middle latency auditory evoked potentials in congenitally blind and normal sighted subjects. International Journal of Neuroscience, 95: 173-181.
Naveen, K.V., Srinivas, R., Nirmala, K.S., Nagarathna, R., Nagendra, H.R. and Telles, S. (1998). Differences between congenitally blind and normal sighted subjects in the P1 component of middle latency auditory evoked potentials. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86: 1192-1194.
Telles, S., Nagarathna, R. and Nagendra, H.R. (1998). Autonomic changes while mentally repeating two syllables – one meaningful and the other neutral. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 42(1): 57-63.
Naveen, K.V., Nagarathna, R., Nagendra, H.R. and Telles, S. (1997). Yoga breathing through a particular nostril increases spatial memory scores without lateralized effects. Psychological Reports, 81: 555-561.
Raghuraj, P.and and Telles, S. (1997).  Muscle power, dexterity skill and visual perception in community home girls trained yoga or sports and in regular school girls. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 41 (4): 409-415.
Naveen, K.V., Srinivas, R.S., Nirmala, K.S., Nagendra, H.R. and, Telles S. (1997). Middle latency auditory evoked potentials in congenitally blind and normal sighted subjects. International Journal of Neurosciences, 90(1-2): 105-111.
Raghuraj, P., Nagarathna, R., Nagendra, H.R. and Telles, S. (1997). Pranayama increases grip strength without lateralized effects. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 41(2): 129-133, cited in the European Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 7(5): 161.
Ramana Vani, P., Nagarathna, R., Nagendra, H.R. and Telles, S. (1997). Progressive increase in critical flicker fusion frequency following yoga training. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 41(2): 71-74.
Telles, S. and Naveen, K.V. (1997). Yoga for rehabilitation: an overview. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 51(4): 123-127.
Telles, S., Nagarathna, R. Ramana Vani, P. and Nagendra, H.R. (1997). A combination of focusing and defocusing through yoga reduces optical illusion more than focusing alone. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 41(2): 179-182.
Telles, S., Narendran, S., Raghuraj, P. Nagarathna, R. and Nagendra, H.R. (1997). Comparison of changes in autonomic and respiratory parameters of girls after yoga and games at a community home. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84: 251-257.
Telles, S., Nagarathna, R. and Nagendra, H.R. (1996). Physiological measures during right nostril breathing. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2(4): 479-484.
Telles, S., Nagarathna, R. and Nagendra, H.R. (1995) Improvement in visual perception following yoga training. Journal of Indian Psychology, 13(1): 30-32.
Telles, S ., Nagarathna, R. and Nagendra, H.R.  (1995). Autonomic changes during ‘OM’ meditation. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 39(4): 418-420.
Telles, S., Hanumanthaiah, B.H., Nagarathna, R. and Nagendra H.R (1994). Plasticity of motor control systems demonstrated by yoga training. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 38(2): 143-144.
Telles, S., Nagarathna, R. and Nagendra H.R (1994). Breathing through a particular nostril can alter metabolism and autonomic activities. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 38(2): 133-137.
Telles, S., Nagarathna, R. and Nagendra H.R. (1994). Alterations in auditory middle latency evoked potentials during meditation on a meaningful symbol ‘OM’. International Journal of Neuroscience, 76: 87-93.
Telles, S. , Hanumanthaiah, B., Nagarathna, R. and Nagendra H.R. (1993). Improvement in static motor performance following yogic training of school children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76: 1264-1266.
Telles, S . and Desiraju, T. (1993). Recording of auditory middle latency evoked potentials during the practice of meditation with the syllable ‘OM’. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 98(B): 237-239.
Telles, S ., Nagarathna, R., Nagendra, H.R. and Desiraju, T. (1993). Physiological changes in sports teachers following 3 months of training in yoga. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 47(10): 235-238.
Telles, S . and Desiraju, T. (1993). Autonomic changes in Brahmakumaris raja yoga meditation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 15: 147-152.
Telles, S., Joseph, C., Venkatesh, S. and Desiraju, T. (1992). Alteration of auditory middle latency evoked potentials during yogic consciously regulated breathing and attentive state of mind. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 14: 189-198.
Telles, S. and Desiraju, T. (1992). Heart rate alterations in different types of pranayamas. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 36 (4): 287-288.
Telles, S. and Desiraju, T. (1992). Heart rate and respiratory changes accompanying yogic conditions of single thought and thoughtless states. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 36 (4): 293-294.
Telles, S. and Desiraju, T. (1991). Oxygen consumption during pranayamic type of very slow-rate breathing. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 94(B): 357-363.